Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai is a 1999 American crime action film written and directed by Jim Jarmusch. Forest Whitaker stars as the title character, the mysterious “Ghost Dog”, a hitman in the employ of the Mafia, who follows the ancient code of the samurai as outlined in the book of Yamamoto Tsunetomo’s recorded sayings, Hagakure. Ghost Dog won the Palme d’Or award at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival.
The film has been interpreted by critics as an homage to Le Samouraï, a 1967 crime-drama by Jean-Pierre Melville starring Alain Delon. That movie opens with a quote from an invented Book of Bushido and features a meditative, loner hero, Jef Costello. In the same manner that Ghost Dog has an electronic “key” to break into luxury cars, Costello has a huge ring of keys that enable him to steal any Citroën DS. The endings share a key similarity. Moreover, the peculiar relationship between the heroes of both movies and birds, companions and danger advisers, is another common point.
The film contains a number of references to Seijun Suzuki’s Branded to Kill, such as when a bird lands in front of Ghost Dog’s rifle scope, referencing the incident with a butterfly in Suzuki’s film. Ghost Dog shooting Sonny Valerio up the drain pipe is taken directly from Branded to Kill.
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